• Seminal paper on Ultrafast Doppler imaging

fUltrasound is based on Ultrafast Doppler imaging. This new way of performing Doppler imaging in Ultrasound was presented in a seminal publication in IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics and Frequency Control in 2010.
Doppler-based flow analysis methods require acquisition of ultrasound data at high spatio-temporal sampling rates. These rates represent a major technical challenge for ultrasound systems because a compromise between spatial and temporal resolution must be made in conventional approaches. Consequently, ultrasound scanners can either provide full quantitative Doppler information on a limited sample volume (spectral Doppler), or averaged Doppler velocity and/or power estimation on a large region of interest (Doppler flow imaging). In this work, we investigate a different strategy for acquiring Doppler information that can overcome the limitations of the existing Doppler modes by significantly reducing the required acquisition time. This technique is called ultrafast compound Doppler imaging and is based on the following concept: instead of successively insonifying the medium with focused beams, several tilted plane waves are sent into the medium and the backscattered signals are coherently summed to produce high-resolution ultrasound images. We demonstrate that this strategy allows reduction of the acquisition time by a factor of up to of 16 while keeping the same Doppler performance. Depending on the application, different directions to increase performance of Doppler analysis are proposed and the improvement is quantified: the ultrafast compound Doppler method allows faster acquisition frame rates for high-velocity flow imaging, or very high sensitivity for low-flow applications. Full quantitative Doppler flow analysis can be performed on a large region of interest, leading to much more information and improved functionality for the physician. By leveraging the recent emergence of ultrafast parallel beamforming systems, this paper demonstrates that breakthrough performances in flow analysis can be reached using this concept of ultrafast compound Doppler. publication available here